The process of
digitisation and quality control is
summarised as follows:
Given the number of images within this archive, variant spellings and the variety of types of text, some OCR errors are inevitable which may affect some search results. However, the high accuracy of metadata capture, and fuzzy search functionality, greatly minimises the impact such OCR errors may have on your search results.
In addition to the capture of all pages, metadata has been captured to facilitate searching and ensure accessibility of the items within this archive. The metadata can be accessed by clicking on the Show Citation button in the Document Tool bar. The citation includes:
Title: The individual
description of the
Subtitle: Additional description of the item, where applicable.
Section: The classification of the item into a topic subdivision, e.g. News, Reviews, and Business and Finance.
Author: The author of the item.
Supplement title: The title of the supplement containing the item, where applicable.
Date: The date on which the item was published.
Page number: The page number(s) of the item.
Issue number: The issue number of the magazine containing the item.
Volume number: The volume number of the magazine containing the item.
Technical support and contact information for Cengage Learning online products is available on our website. Topics covered include:
every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information
presented in this archive, Cengage
Learning does not
guarantee the accuracy of the information contained herein. Cengage
Learning accepts no payment for listings and inclusion in this archive
organisation, agency, institution, publisher, service, product or
and does not imply endorsement by the editors or the Publisher.
Errors brought to the attention of the Publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the Publisher will be corrected.
This archive is a creative work copyrighted by Cengage Learning and is fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition, and other applicable laws. The authors and editors of this archive have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, expression, arrangement and classification of information.
Cengage Learning will vigorously defend all rights to this product.
Requesting Permission to Reproduce Material
Learning's agreement with The Economist, grants the Publisher rights
not include reproduction of images outside of The Economist
Archive, 1843-2006. If you wish to include any images in a book
article, please contact Cengage Learning
EMEA in the
first instance, c/o Publishing Department,
The Search option is accessible via the Begin Searching tab on the home page, or via the Navigation Bar, shown below.
Search option enables you to search the entire archive for the presence
word or words within the full text and the metadata. Enter a phrase or
search operators of AND NOT, AND, OR. If
searching on a phrase that contains a Boolean search
operator you must enclose the phrase within double quotation marks.
terms or phrases entered cannot exceed one hundred characters or twelve
In addition, you can limit your search by date. To expand the Search options, select the More button. Further options for limiting by date range, media and supplement type are then displayed. Exact dates of publication do not need to be entered into the date search, as the issue that follows the selected date will be returned. The table below provides descriptions of the search limiters you may employ.
Year or Date
Limits your search to items published in a specific year or month.
Limits your search to items published in a specific date range. You may select year, month and day from drop down lists or choose specific dates using the pop-up calendars. Click on Calendar, select the date you require and the drop down boxes automatically populate. The date range for the archive is 1843 to 2006.
your search to items containing media such as maps, photographs and
tables, both exportable and non-exportable. You may select as few or as
many media types as you wish.
you to search specifically within supplement articles and titles only.
You may select as few or as many boxes as you wish.
your search to articles created by The Economist's editorial leaders:
Bagehot, Lexington and Charlemagne. You may select as few or as many
boxes as your wish.
The Fuzzy Search feature, deactivated by default, expands your search results to include very near matches on your search term. Click on the Fuzzy is off button to activate this feature. Clicking the Search button will execute your search and return a results list matching your search parameters. Clicking the Clear Search button will clear the Search box. Information on how to improve your search results can be found within Search Tips, accessible via the Tool Bar at the top of the window, shown below.
Fuzzy searching expands your search results to include very near matches on your search term. The table below shows the levels of fuzzy search and their impact upon your search results.
Impact upon Results
Returns exact matches only
Returns very near matches
‘harbor’ and ‘harbour’
Note: If a truncation (wildcard) character is used with the Fuzzy search feature set to On, the search will ignore the fuzzy search setting in favour of the search indicated by the wildcard character.
Field Searching is a feature which allows you to conduct detailed searches using specific fields from the metadata of each item. Various fields can be used in conjunction with the Boolean and Proximity search operators to retrieve very specific search results. Below are descriptions of the metadata fields you can search.
|The individual description of the item.|
Additional description of the item, where applicable.
|The title of the supplement, where applicable.|
The author of the item.
The classification of the item into one of the following topic subdivisions:
|The issue number of the magazine containing the item.|
type of illustration contained within the item. The illustration types
The Field Search Example box reformats your search term to search the specific field you require, without having to manually enter a long and complex search string. In the example below, a search has been made for items about EU farming. The search term EU Farming has been entered into the search box and the Title field has been selected. The search for EU farming has been reformatted to: (title Contains (EU farming)) OR (subtitle Contains (EU farming)). When searching the Title field, both the Title and Subtitle fields are included, as the subtitle often includes more relevant subject matter, with the title giving a more imaginative description.
have performed a search, items that match your search parameters are
a results list. Results are, by default, sorted by ascending date. To
sort by descending order, select the Order by drop-down list at
the top right hand corner of the Results List, then click on
descending, as shown below.
The Results by Section area, on the left hand side of the screen, allows you to limit your results to a particular section, such as News or Reviews.
To navigate to the previous and next page of a Results List, use the arrows to the left and right of the Results List page numbers or select the required page number. For each item within a Results List, a brief citation is provided. Each brief citation includes: Title, Section, Date, Page, Issue and Volume number. Clicking on the date of an item takes you directly to the first page on which the relevant article appears.
View displays an image of the page containing the selected article. If
is being viewed as a result of a keyword search the search term(s) will
highlighted. The Document Tool Bar, shown below, appears on the left
hand side of the
Image View and allows you to:
|Show or hide the citation.|
|Jump to the cover or contents page of an issue.|
|Increase or decrease the viewing magnification.|
|Search for a word within an article.|
|Search for a word within an issue.|
|Go to a specific page of an issue.|
|Mark the item for future reference.|
Table of Contents
When the Contents page of an issue is viewed, within the Image View, a Table of Contents appears underneath the Document Tool Bar, as shown below. The Table of Contents provides hyperlinks directly to the pages containing the articles from an issue. The Table of Contents can be minimised by clicking on the Table of Contents button within the blue box.
The Economic and
Financial Indicator tables, from May 1983 to December 2003, are available for
exporting into a spreadsheet format. For technical reasons, tables are not
available for export before or after these dates.
When viewing the
Economic and Financial Indicator tables in the Image View, the titles
of the individual tables will appear in a blue box below the Document
Tool Bar. Click on the table title to view the table, see image below.
To export the table, click on the Export tab displayed at the top of
the table. A dialogue box will appear asking permission for the website
to access your clipboard, select OK.
The table will be
copied to your computer's clipboard. Open up your spreadsheet software,
such as Microsoft Excel, select any cell and paste the table. The table
will appear in the spreadsheet ready for saving, printing or aiding in
Browse by Date
The Browse by Date feature, accessible via the Navigation Bar, allows you to browse each issue by date. Enter the year into the Browse Year box, then select the required month. The issues for that month will be displayed below the timeline. Alternatively, you may scroll the timeline using the arrows positioned at the ends of the timeline or by clicking in the correct place on the timeline. To view all the covers for issues from a particular year, click on the year displayed just before the first month. Clicking on a cover will display the entire contents of that issue.
Thumbnail images and article details of the issue selected are then displayed, as shown below. Clicking on the details of an article will display the required image of the page you selected. The image will be displayed within the Image View.
Back to Top
Search History feature, accessible via the Navigation Bar, saves and
list of the searches conducted during a session. The search terms,
limiters and fuzzy search level are captured when you enter a term
Search button is clicked. Search History is automatically cleared when
close or time out of a session.
Within the Search History feature you can repeat or edit a previous search, and clear the search history. To repeat a previous search, click on the Search link next to the search you wish to repeat. To edit a search, click on the Edit link next to the search you wish to edit. To clear the search history click on the Clear History button.
Within a results list you can mark any items you find useful to create a personalised citation list. Items can be selected from the Results List by checking the box to the left of the brief citation or in the Document Tool Bar. After selecting one or more items you may view your citation list by clicking on the Marked Items button in the Tool Bar at the top of the window. Entries consist of a brief citation, as in the Results List, and are listed in the order in which they were selected. You have the option of emailing or printing this list.
item from your Marked Items list, simply deselect the box to the left
citation, or click Remove in the Marked Items view.
Emailing: Click on the Email icon in the Tool Bar. Enter a name and email address. Click Send to email the Marked Items list to the email address entered.
Printing: Click on the Print icon in the Tool Bar. The Marked Items list will load into a ‘Print Friendly’ format. Click File and Print from the main browser tool bar.
Printing and Saving Pages
The Print and Save feature allows you to print or save single or multiple images, up to a maximum of ten images. To print or save a single image, click on either the Print or Save button. To print or save a number of images enter the image numbers into the box provided. The images are then reformatted into a PDF format for printing or saving.
Marked Items lists and images can be emailed by clicking on the Email icon in the Tool Bar. Enter a name and email address and click Send. The recipient will receive an email containing links to the selected articles and their citations.
Cengage Learning Online Products
Help on how to cite Cengage Learning online products is available on the Cengage Learning website.